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The Ethno-Archaeology Museum of Iclod, Cluj

The beginnings of the Museum of Iclod

After several years of hard work, with the support of particularly specialists of the National History Museum of Transylvania (Prof. Univ. dr. Gh. Lazarovici, dr. Zoia Maxim, etc), was inaugurated at Iclod, in Cluj County, in 1987 a Village Museum housed in the Mansion (castle) of Iclod, as a continuation of the old cultural events from the beginnings of the XX century. In this Mansion lived between 1903 and 1910, during the archaeological excavations in the area of Iclod, the archeolog Márton Roska.
The soul of this large-scale works, begun in 1975, was professor Aurel Bulbuc. With the coming to Iclod, as professor of history in 1972, he found some archaeological remains which will be the starting point for a job full of dedication for over 30 years.
To this was also added the ethnographic collection gathered over several decades when he has been a teacher and school director, and choreographer of folk dance teams with which he made tournaments in various parts of the world.
A pottery was also housed in the basement of the mansion and a small zoo in the park that surrounds it.
Gavrila Ana, the daughter of Prof. Dr. Petre Porutiu, the current owner of the Mansion (castle) of Iclod wants to preserve the museum, trying to find solutions for the problems related to the operation and support of its activities and for the renovation and preservation of the building valuable itself, which hosts the museum.

Vestigii arheologice pe teritoriul comunei Iclod

The discoveries made by professor Aurel Bulbuc, with the support of The National History Museum of Transylvania and the work of the students who participated in the excavations, come to continue the first discoveries from Iclod village territory, Cluj County, in the late nineteenth century, providing important information about the prehistory of Transylvania. Numerous surface research and excavations in the area, from the XX century have revealed the habitation of this area without interruption since the Palaeolithic period until the present.

Unique event in the country that emphasizes the importance of these discoveries, is the existence on the territory of the Iclod commune of three archaeological reserves: Tufele rosii, where has been discovered a Palaeolithic habitation, followed by early Neolithic artifacts at Doroaie and Centru-Livada. In the Late Neolithic, a thriving settlement, type "fair-city" with economic and perhaps religious character, fortified with moats, has been discovered at Pamantul Vladicii, including two cemeteries with rich funeral inventory. The richness of these remains has highlighted the existence of a civilization in the Basin of the river Somes, which was called by prof. Dr. Lazarovici “the Iclod group”. It maintained links with other cultures such as Precucuteni and Petrești, in eastern and southern Transylvania, and Lengyel in Hungary. The evolution continued in Neolithic, Bronze and Iron Age, remains of which were brought to light in several places. At Doroaie, Tacle, on Valea Furcii and exit from Livada, have been discovered Dacian artifacts, and on both sides of the road linking the northern limes forts, Roman remains. Remnants during prefeudal period were certified at Pamantul Vladicii (housing), Tabla Popii and Balastiera (tombs).

The findings from Iclod were the result of an interdisciplinary research such as prospectings with Proton Magnetometer and γ rays, which have been realized by a ream from ITIM Cluj, prospectings by the measurement of the electrical resistivity of the soil, soil analysis, studies of paleoastronomy, petrographic and Paleozoic determinations, C14 dating.

The Ethno-Archaeology Museum of Iclod

The head of the archaeological site at Iclod, later became director of The National History Museum of Transylvania, archaeologist George Lazarovici and the Ethnographic Museum , director, anthropologist Tiberiu Graur had the inspiration and determination to make the big step that leads to the meeting of the two different areas of research history and ethnography, being the initiators of a very special cultural project. This resulted in the organization, since 1990 of the National Seminar of Ethno-Archaeology, now at the XXII edition, which wants to be a bridge between researchers in the fields of ethnology and anthropology, history and archeology, architecture, astronomy, numismatics, etc. At Iclod were practically established the foundations of archaeometry, here were applied for the first time during excavations, many of these research methods[1, 2] , They organized several editions of The National Symposium of Archaeometry and has been constituted The National Commission for Archaeometry.

Although most of the objects found during excavations are exhibited in The National History Museum of Transylvania, the importance of the archaeological discoveries from the territory of the commune Iclod, has imposed the establishment of a museum in Iclod. (http://ghidulmuzeelor.cimec.ro/id.asp?k=1491). It was designed as a "pilot center" for archaeometrical and museum research, taking advantage of the existence of a "archaeological site school" at The National History Museum of Transylvania. The museum contains collections of prehistoric and ancient archeology discovered in the archaeological site Iclod (pottery, weapons, tools, jewelry, ornaments, etc.) elements of local history and ethnography.


[1] Introducere în arheologia informatizată, Ghe. Lazarovici si D. Micle, Universitatea din Timisoara 2001;   

[2] Adrian Husar, Introducere în arheologie, Universitatea „Petru Maior” Târgu-Mureș, 2005

 

 

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